The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE, after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms and established the first unified Chinese state. Qin Shi Huang, the emperor of Qin, proclaimed himself the "First Emperor" (始皇帝) and imposed reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of the Chinese language, measurements, length of cart axles, and currency.

The Qin Dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after Qin Shi Huang's death, as its harsh legalist and authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion. The subsequent Han Dynasty ruled China between 206 BCE and 220 CE, and created a lasting Han cultural identity among its populace that has endured to the present day.

The Han Dynasty expanded the empire's territory considerably with military campaigns reaching Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia and Central Asia, and also helped establish the Silk Road in Central Asia. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world.

The Han Dynasty adopted Confucianism, a philosophy developed in the Spring and Autumn period, as its official state ideology. Despite the Han's official abandonment of Legalism, the official ideology of the Qin, Legalist institutions and policies remained and formed the basis of the Han government.

After the collapse of Han, a period of disunion known as the period of the Three Kingdoms followed. In 580 CE, China was reunited under the However, the Sui Dynasty declined following its defeat in the Goguryeo–Sui War (598–614).

Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese technology and culture entered a golden age. The Tang Empire was at its height of power until the middle of the 8th century, when the An Shi Rebellion destroyed the prosperity of the empire.

The Song Dynasty was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy. Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly due to the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses.

The Song Dynasty also saw a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and portrait painting were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity, and social elites gathered to view art, share their own and trade precious artworks. The Song Dynasty saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang.

In the 13th century, China was gradually conquered by the Mongol empire. In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song Dynasty in 1279.

A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan Dynasty in 1368 and founded the Ming Dynasty. Under the Ming Dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture.

It was during this period that Zheng He led explorations throughout the world, reaching as far as Africa. In the early years of the Ming Dynasty, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. During the Ming Dynasty, thinkers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and innate morality.

In 1644, Beijing was sacked by a coalition of rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, a minor Ming official who led the peasant revolt. The last Ming Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing Dynasty then allied with Ming Dynasty general Wu Sangui and overthrew Li's short-lived Shun Dynasty, and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing Dynasty.(


Dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia, then known as Ticinum, was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire. It was said by Pliny the Elder to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres.

The Roman city most likely began as a small military camp, built by the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio in 218 BC to guard a wooden bridge he had built over the river Ticinum, on his way to search for Hannibal, who was rumoured to have managed to lead an army over the Alps and into Italy.

The forces of Rome and Carthage ran into each other soon thereafter, and the Romans suffered the first of many crushing defeats at the hands of Hannibal, with the consul himself almost losing his life.

The bridge was destroyed, but the fortified camp, which at the time was the most forward Roman military outpost in the Po Valley, somehow survived the long Second Punic War, and gradually evolved into a garrison town.

Its importance grew with the extension of the Via Aemilia from Ariminum (Rimini) to the Po River (187 BC), which it crossed at Placentia (Piacenza) and there forked, one branch going to Mediolanum (Milan) and the other to Ticinum, and thence to Laumellum where it divided once more, one branch going to Vercellae - and thence to Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria - and the other to Valentia - and thence to Augusta Taurinorum (Turin).

It was at Pavia in 476 AD that the reign of Romulus Augustulus (r. 475-476), the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire ended and Roman rule ceased in Italy. Romulus Augustulus,

while considered the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire was actually a usurper of the imperial throne; his father Flavius Orestes having dethroned the previous emperor, Julius Nepos, and raised the young Romulus Augustulus to the imperial throne at Ravenna in 475.

Though being the emperor, Romulus Augustulus was simply the mouthpiece for his father Orestes, who was the person who actually exercised power and governed Italy during Romulus Augustulus’s short reign. Ten months after Romulus Augustulus’s reign began, Orestes’s soldiers under the command of one of his officers named Odoacer, rebelled and killed Orestes in the city of Pavia in 476.

The rioting that took place as part of Odoacer’s uprising against Orestes sparked fires that burnt much of Pavia to the point that Odoacer as the new king of Italy, had to suspend the taxes for the city for five years so that it could finance its recovery.

Without his father Romulus Augustulus was powerless. Instead of killing Romulus Augustulus, Odoacer pensioned him off at 6,000 solidi a year before declaring the end of the Western Roman Empire and himself king of the new Kingdom of Italy.

Odoacer’s reign as king of Italy did not last long, because in 488 the Ostrogothic peoples led by their king Theoderic invaded Italy and waged war against Odoacer. After fighting for 5 years Theoderic defeated Odoacer and on March 15, 493 assassinated Odoacer at a banquet meant to negotiate a peace between the two rulers.

With the establishment of the Ostrogoth kingdom based in northern Italy, Theoderic began his vast program of public building. Pavia was among several cities that Theodoric chose to restore and expand. He began the construction of the vast palace complex that would eventually become the residence of Lombard monarchs several decades later. in the seventh century these would be among the few still functioning bath complexes in Europe outside of the Eastern Roman Empire.

 Near the end of Theoderic’s reign the Christian philosopher Boethius was imprisoned in one of Pavia’s churches from 522 to 525 before his execution for treason. It was during Boethius’s captivity in Pavia that he wrote his seminal work the Consolation of Philosophy.(


Berbicara mengenai smartphone, tentunya tak bisa lepas dari Samsung yang merupakan penguasa segmen ini. Namun bukan berarti produsen lain harus dipinggirkan. Salah satunya adalah Sony yang baru saja mengumumkan tingkat penjualan yang cukup menggembirakan bagi perusahaan asal Jepang tersebut.

Pada kuartal ketiga 2013 ini (kuartal kedua di Jepang), Sony mengungkapkan bahwa mereka telah berhasil menjual sebanyak 10 juta unit smartphone Xperia.

Angka tersebut pun menjadi rekor penjualan tertinggi bagi Sony. Sebelumnya, rekor penjualan tertinggi Sony hanya sebesar 400 ribu unit, sebuah angka yang cukup kecil untuk perusahaan sebesar Sony.

Peningkatan drastis tersebut pun berkat peluncuran smartphone Xperia Z1 yang dilakukan oleh Sony pada awal tahun ini. Dan smartphone ini pun kini menjadi smartphone yang memberikan keuntungan paling besar bagi Sony.

Berkat angka penjualan 10 juta unit tersebut, saat ini Sony pun menjadi salah satu dari top 5 produsen smartphone dunia.

Sayangnya, meskipun Sony memiliki kabar yang cukup menggembirakan dari segmen smartphone, ternyata perusahaan ini mengalami kerugian secara umum. Total terdapat kerugian sebesar 197 juta USD yang harus ditanggung oleh Sony, hal ini karena divisi lain seperti PC dan TV memperoleh kerugian.(


Dalam geologi, batu adalah benda padat yang tebuat secara alami dari mineral dan atau mineraloid. Lapisan luar padat Bumi, litosfer, terbuat dari batu.

Dalam batuan umumnya adalah tiga jenis, yaitu batuan beku, sedimen, dan metamorf. Penelitian ilmiah batuan disebut petrologi, dan petrologi merupakan komponen penting dari geologi.

Dalam bangunan batu biasanya dipakai pada pondasi bangunan untuk bangunan dengan ketinggian kurang dari 10 meter, Batu juga dipakai untuk memperindah fasade bangunan dengan memberikan warna dan tekstur unik dari batu alam.

Batuan umumnya diklasifikasikan berdasarkan komposisi mineral dan kimia, dengan tekstur partikel unsur dan oleh proses yang membentuk mereka.

Ciri - ciri ini mengklasifikasikan batuan menjadi beku, sedimen, dan metamorf. Mereka lebih diklasifikasikan berdasarkan ukuran partikel yang membentuk mereka. Transformasi dari satu jenis batuan yang lain digambarkan oleh model geologi.

Pengkelasan ini dibuat dengan berdasarkan:
  1. kandungan mineral yaitu jenis-jenis mineral yang terdapat di dalam batu ini.
  2. tekstur batu, yaitu ukuran dan bentuk hablur-hablur mineral di dalam batu
  3. struktur batu, yaitu susunan hablur mineral di dalam batu.
  4. proses pembentukan (


Bagian paling luar dari ginjal disebut korteks, bagian lebih dalam lagi disebut medulla. Bagian paling dalam disebut pelvis. Pada bagian medulla ginjal manusia dapat pula dilihat adanya piramida yang merupakan bukaan saluran pengumpul.

Ginjal dibungkus oleh jaringan fibros tipis dan mengkilap yang disebut kapsula fibrosa ginjal dan diluar kapsul ini terdapat jaringan lemak perirenal.

Di sebelahatas ginjal terdapat kelenjar adrenal. Ginjal dan kelenjar adrenal dibungkus oleh fasia gerota. Unit fungsional dasar dari ginjal adalah nefron yang dapat berjumlah lebih dari satu juta buah dalam satu ginjal normal manusia dewasa.

Nefron berfungsi sebagai regulator air dan zat terlarut (terutama elektrolit) dalam tubuh dengan cara menyaring darah, kemudian mereabsorpsi cairan dan molekul yang masih diperlukan tubuh. Molekul dan sisa cairan lainnya akan dibuang. Reabsorpsi dan pembuangan dilakukan menggunakan mekanisme pertukaran lawan arus dan kotranspor.

Hasil akhir yang kemudian diekskresikan disebut urine. Sebuah nefron terdiri dari sebuah komponen penyaring yang disebut korpuskula (atau badan Malphigi) yang dilanjutkan oleh saluran-saluran (tubulus).

Setiap korpuskula mengandung gulungan kapiler darah yang disebut glomerulus yang berada dalam kapsula Bowman. Setiap glomerulus mendapat aliran darah dari arteri aferen. Dinding kapiler dari glomerulus memiliki pori-pori untuk filtrasi atau penyaringan.

Darah dapat disaring melalui dinding epitelium tipis yang berpori dari glomerulus dan kapsula Bowman karena adanya tekanan dari darah yang mendorong plasma darah.

Filtrat yang dihasilkan akan masuk ke dalan tubulus ginjal. Darah yang telah tersaring akan meninggalkan ginjal lewat arteri eferen. Di antara darah dalam glomerulus dan ruangan berisi cairan dalam kapsula Bowman terdapat tiga lapisan:
  1. kapiler selapis sel endotelium pada glomerulus
  2. lapisan kaya protein sebagai membran dasar
  3. selapis sel epitel melapisi dinding kapsula Bowman (podosit)
Dengan bantuan tekanan, cairan dalan darah didorong keluar dari glomerulus, melewati ketiga lapisan tersebut dan masuk ke dalam ruangan dalam kapsula Bowman dalam bentuk filtrat glomerular. Filtrat plasma darah tidak mengandung sel darah ataupun molekul protein yang besar. Protein dalam bentuk molekul kecil dapat ditemukan dalam filtrat ini.

Darah manusia melewati ginjal sebanyak 350 kali setiap hari dengan laju 1,2 liter per menit, menghasilkan 125 cc filtrat glomerular per menitnya. Laju penyaringan glomerular ini digunakan untuk tes diagnosa fungsi ginjal. (


Perkembangan industri mobile di Cina kian pesat. Bahkan pada tahun 2012 kemarin, para produsen handphone Cina total telah menghasilkan lebih dari 1.18 miliar unit handphone. Jumlah tersebut pun melebihi 50 persen penjualan handphone di seluruh dunia.

Hal ini semakin menunjukkan dominasi pasar handphone Cina yang merupakan pasar terbesar di dunia plus jumlah handphone lokal yang juga meningkat.

Dibandingkan dengan tahun lalu, terdapat peningkatan produksi yang cukup baik, yakni sebesar 4.3 persen. Dalam data yang dimiliki oleh Kementerian Industri dan Teknologi Informasi Cina

Tersebut juga menunjukkan adanya peningkatan pengguna jaringan 3G yang kini mencapai 103.38 juta orang. Jumlah ini merupakan rekor pencapaian pertama di mana penggunanya melebihi angka 100 juta.

Mengenai penggunaan akses internet juga meningkat seiring dengan tingginya pemakaian handphone dan handphone pintar.

Pihak pemerintah mencatat bahwa kini tingkat penggunaan internet di Cina sudah mencapai angka 42.1 persen, meningkat sebesar 3.8 persen dibanding tahun lalu. Sebanyak 74.5 persen pengguna internet di Cina tersebut juga mengaksesnya dari perangkat mobile.(